Prediction of Evolution of Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Carbon Anode during Baking

  • Zahid Ahmed Qureshi

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Carbon Anode Baking is one of the most important and the costliest step in the Aluminum production industry. The baking process is carried out in a furnace whereby the green (unbaked) anode transforms into pre-baked anodes resulting in change of material properties. Baking process alters the behavior of green anode to make it suitable to withstand the harsh thermo-electrical environment of the electrolysis cell. Both over and under-baking of anodes are undesirable. Therefore, the baking level achieved at any stage of the baking process is an important parameter which presently is estimated using experiments based empirical corelations. The first part of this work is a contribution towards development of a phenomenological based mathematical model to predict the baking level of carbon anode at any stage of the baking process. The model takes into account the operational parameters of the furnace. To author's best knowledge, this is the first mathematical model developed for predicting the baking level of carbon anodes. The quality of pre-baked anodes is reflected by its material properties. The second part of the work addresses the evolution of thermal conductivity, specific electrical resistivity and compressive strength of carbon anodes as the anode transforms from the green to baked state during the baking process. The evolution of material properties directly depends upon the evolution of the baking level. Evolution equations for material properties have been developed and calibrated with the available published data. Thus, combining the evolution of baking level and evolution of material properties provide a wholesome insight to the baking process kinetics.
Date of AwardJul 2018
Original languageAmerican English


  • Anode-Baking
  • Baking Level
  • Phase-Field
  • Evolution of Properties

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