Modeling The Supply Chain of Critical Material Used in Li-ion Batteries

  • Al-Moatasem Al Hashmi

    Student thesis: Master's Thesis


    The emerging use of electric vehicles running on Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is growing. This development is primarily a response to mitigate environmental challenges such as climate change, where there is a clear global agenda for achieving net-zero carbon emissions in the future. One of the challenges in achieving future net-zero carbon emissions relates to the supply chain of raw materials used in the production of clean energy technologies. In the typical growth demand scenario, demand is estimated to increase by 2 times for cobalt and 2.3 times for lithium within the period 2020-2040. The challenge is to maintain the demand and supply of the clean energy market for these materials to sustain the production of technologies such as light-duty vehicles and portable devices. LIB's primary materials used to improve its performance and cost are cobalt, lithium, nickel, graphite, manganese, and aluminum. The rapid growth in electric vehicles and energy storage sectors amplified the global demand for manufacturing LIB. This paper presents a scenario whereby implemented for cathode chemistries, which showed decrease in cobalt demand by 35% compared to the steady growth demand scenario. Recycling could play an essential role in reducing primary raw materials demand until 2040. In this paper, I analyze and quantify some of the challenges confronting the LIB supply chain, including raw materials and the manufacturing of cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes. Specifically, the report aims to: • Study the global mining of raw materials used in the production of LIB • Analyze the market of the two critical raw materials, cobalt and lithium, that are used in the production of cathodes chemistries • Investigate and model the current supply chain of LIB primary raw materials and quantify the future demand for the key materials used in developing battery chemistries
    Date of AwardMay 2021
    Original languageAmerican English


    • Cobalt
    • Demand
    • Lithium
    • Recycling
    • LIB.

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