Evaluation of Recycling Spent Lithium-ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles in the UAE

  • Rawdha Naji Almahri

    Student thesis: Master's Thesis


    The environmental impacts caused by the manufacturing of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and the supply risks of the valuable metals in the electric vehicles (EVs) batteries can be mitigated by recycling the used LIBs. This study computes the environmental effects and the costs associated with the remanufacturing of lithium (Li)-nickel (Ni)-manganese (Mn)-cobalt oxide (NMC) cells with recycled materials and compares environmental and economic metrics with manufacturing the same battery cell from virgin materials. A UAE case study of remanufacturing LIBs using the hydrometallurgy technique is conducted using the EverBatt model. The results exhibited that by remanufacturing, the energy consumption and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions can be reduced by 11%. From the economic perspective, there is a potential for the cost-saving of $3.91 kg-1 cell when the spent batteries are remanufactured with recycled materials. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis shows that NMC111 has the lowest environmental and economic impacts compared to NMC532, NMC622, and NMC811. We also found that the purchasing cost of wasted LIBs is significant for the economic feasibility of remanufacturing NMC111, NMC532, NMC622, and NMC811. Furthermore, Co price is critical for NMC111 and NMC532, whereas Ni price influences NMC811 only. However, Mn price does not affect the production costs of any NMC battery chemistries considered. Also, the impact of recovery efficiency is insignificant in environmental and economic perspectives.
    Date of AwardJul 2021
    Original languageAmerican English


    • LIB recycling
    • Electric vehicles
    • NMC111
    • Hydrometallurgy.

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