Coordinated Intelligent Load Frequency Control Incorporating Demand Response and Energy Storage System

  • Hajer Al Yammahi

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Frequency regulation is one of the main concerns in electrical power systems to maintain the generation-load balance. Generally, frequency regulation is accomplished by the speed governor response (primary control) and a secondary control that restores the frequency to its nominal value. This problem, in which the real power output of generation units is controlled in response to changes in system frequency, is known as Load Frequency Control (LFC). Currently, LFC problem becomes more challenging due to the continuous rapid demand growth, limited availability of conventional Automatic Generation Control (AGC) and spinning reserves, increasing number of microgrids, and increasing financial and environmental restrictions on the expansion of the existing power stations. Moreover, due to the increasing penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power grids, the conventional controllers may be unable to sustain the continuous fluctuations in generation in the presence of disturbances. Thus, adaptive controllers become essential in such cases to provide a reliable and secure power operation. Besides having the adaptive controller, Demand Response (DR) and energy storage systems show a great promise in balancing the generation and demand. In response to these challenges, the purpose of this thesis is to bridge the gap by introducing a novel coordinated intelligent LFC scheme among DR, Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), and the supplementary control loop in order to maintain the power balance in a sustainable way. The main target of the proposed control scheme is to minimize the dependency on the existing conventional generation units that are costly and environmentally-unfriendly. Furthermore, a minimum share of DR is utilized to regulate the system frequency in order to ensure consumer’s Quality of service (QoS). The proposed coordination strategy has been evaluated and verified in a microgrid system. Simulation results prove the superior and powerful performance of the proposed control scheme in frequency regulation.
Date of AwardMay 2015
Original languageAmerican English
SupervisorAmer Al Hinai (Supervisor)


  • Load Frequency Control (LFC)
  • Quality of Service
  • Demand Response
  • Energy Storage Systems.

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