A new non destructive device for real-time measurement of black powder particles in gas pipelines

  • Esra Al Hosani

    Student thesis: Master's Thesis

    Abstract

    Black powder is a worldwide problem facing the gas industry affecting all phases of gas production, transmission and distribution. Current solutions rely on removal methods only as there are no preventative methods for the formation of black powder. Up to date, no commercial design is available to monitor Black Powder in gas pipelines. Also there are no research conducted to investigate online monitoring of black powder. Hence this study is considered a first step for arriving at a solution for reducing black powder risks in gas pipelines, as this problem requires cooperation and education among the gas industry. In this study, a method and a device based on NIR, MIR and Raman spectroscopy were proposed to monitor online and continuously the amount of black powder passing though the earliest stages of the pipeline network in order to reduce its risks. Offline experiments to quantify the amount of black powder were conducted. First, the samples of black powder were measured using standard analytical procedures and the results were used as reference values for establishing the calibration model based on multivariate calibration. This latest was done using the Principal Component Regression (PCR) and the Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) for NIR, MIR and Raman spectroscopy. In the conducted experiment, both PLSR and PCR were almost indistinguishable in their outcome. However, PLSR was more robust and could compensate for systematic and human errors more than PCR. The predictions from all three techniques (NIR, MIR and Raman spectroscopy) were good and no specific technique was superior to the others. Nevertheless, offline experiments indicate that Raman technique performed slightly better than NIR and MIR techniques. However, each spectroscopic method has its advantages and disadvantages. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate the online behaviour of real gas systems before arriving at a strict conclusion.
    Date of Award2012
    Original languageAmerican English
    SupervisorMahmoud Meribout (Supervisor)

    Keywords

    • Applied sciences
    • Electric measurements
    • Gas pipelines
    • Gases purification
    • Electrical engineering
    • Petroleum engineering
    • 0765:Petroleum engineering
    • 0544:Electrical engineering

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