Wearable Blood Pressure Sensing Based on Transmission Coefficient Scattering for Microstrip Patch Antennas

Mona K. El Abbasi, Mervat Madi, Herbert F. Jelinek, Karim Y. Kabalan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Painless, cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring sensors provide a more dynamic measure of blood pressure for critical diagnosis or continuous monitoring of hypertensive patients compared to current cuff-based options. To this end, a novel flexible, wearable and miniaturized microstrip patch antenna topology is proposed to measure dynamic blood pressure (BP). The methodology was implemented on a simulated five-layer human tissue arm model created and designed in High-Frequency Simulation Software “HFSS”. The electrical properties of the five-layer human tissue were set at the frequency range (2–3) GHz to comply with clinical/engineering stan-dards. The fabricated patch incorporated on a 0.4 mm epoxy substrate achieved consistency between the simulated and measured reflection coefficient results at flat and bent conditions over the frequency range of 2.3–2.6 GHz. Simulations for a 10 g average specific absorption rate (SAR) based on IEEE-Standard for a human arm at different input powers were also carried out. The safest input power was 50 mW with an acceptable SAR value of 3.89 W/Kg < 4W/Kg. This study also explored a novel method to obtain the pulse transit time (PTT) as an option to measure BP. Pulse transmit time is based on obtaining the time difference between the transmission coefficient scattering waveforms measured between the two pairs of metallic sensors underlying the assumption that brachial arterial geometries are dynamic. Consequently, the proposed model is validated by comparing it to the standard nonlinear Moens and Korteweg model over different artery thickness-radius ratios, showing excellent correlation between 0.76 ± 0.03 and 0.81 ± 0.03 with the systolic and diastolic BP results. The absolute risk of arterial blood pressure increased with the increase in brachial artery thickness-radius ratio. The results of both methods successfully demonstrate how the radius estimates, PTT and pulse wave velocity (PWV), along with electromagnetic (EM) antenna transmission propagation characteristics, can be used to estimate continuous BP non-invasively.

Original languageBritish English
Article number3996
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • brachial artery radius-to-tissue thickness ratio
  • miniaturized microstrip patch antenna
  • Moens-Korteweg equation
  • specific absorption rate
  • transmission coefficient scattering parameter

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