Virtual Water Trade as an Adaptation Demand Management of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources in the Middle East

Mutasem El-Fadel, Rania Maroun

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


    Evidence of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown since pre-indus-trial times, with an increase of 70 % between 1970 and 2004 and with current climate change mitigation policies and related sustainable development practices, global GHG emissions will continue to grow over the next few decades. The increase in anthropogenic GHG concentrations is very likely causing the warming of the climate system since the mid-20th century, as evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. The climate system and the water cycle are closely linked, so that any change in one of these systems induces a change in the other. Yet, the implications of climate variability and climate change have not been fully considered in current water policy and decision-making frameworks. This is particularly true in developing countries, where the financial, human and ecological impacts are potentially greatest, and where water resources may be already highly stressed, but the capacity to cope and adapt is weakest. This chapter outlines the impact of climate change on water resources in Middle Eastern countries, and discusses potential adaptive measures in this respect, with emphasis on virtual water trade, as a non-conventional demand management option for water resources.

    Original languageBritish English
    Title of host publicationEnvironmental Science and Engineering
    PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
    Number of pages15
    StatePublished - 2008

    Publication series

    NameEnvironmental Science and Engineering
    ISSN (Print)1863-5520
    ISSN (Electronic)1863-5539


    • Climate Change
    • Middle East
    • Virtual Water Trade
    • Water Demand Management


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