Utilization of raw and activated date pits for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions

Fawzi Banat, Sameer Al-Asheh, Leema Al-Makhadmeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations


Activated carbons prepared from date pits, an agricultural waste byproduct, have been examined for the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. The activated carbons were prepared using a fluidized bed reactor in two steps; carbonization at 700 °C for 2 hours in N2 atmosphere and activation at 900 °C in CO2 atmosphere. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of intraparticle diffusion, pseudo-second order, and Lagergren, and followed more closely the pseudo-second-order chemisorption model. The isotherm equilibrium data were well fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The maximum adsorption capacity of activated date pits per Langmuir model was 16 times higher than that of nonactivated date pits. The thermodynamic properties calculated revealed the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The uptake of phenol increased with increasing initial phenol concentration from 10 to 200 ppm and temperature from 25 to 55 °C, and decreased with increasing the solution pH from 4 to 12. The uptake of phenol was not affected by the presence of NaCl salt.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)80-86
Number of pages7
JournalChemical Engineering and Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004


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