Utilization of Aerobic Compression Composting Technology on Raw Mushroom Waste for Bioenergy Pellets Production

Wen Yi Chia, Kit Wayne Chew, Cheng Foh Le, Chelsea Siew Chyi Chee, Mae See Luan Ooi, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Raw mushroom waste has been an enormous solid waste, not only causing a huge cut on profit margin of mushroom industries but also leading to environmental pollution. Unfortunately, the current utilization methods, such as pharmaceutical extractions, are unable to keep up with the waste generation rate due to the large-scale mushroom production. Yet, the utilization of raw mushroom waste to produce biomass pellets for energetic purposes and the role of an electric com-poster on shortening the processing time remain unexplored. This is important because conventional composting, which takes a relatively long period (e.g., weeks to months), is less practical when it comes to commercial use of the biomass pellets. To explore this issue, an industrial composter with initial compost was utilized to process the raw mushroom waste, followed by pelletization. Extraction of the material inside the composter at different timing was carried out to determine the optimal processing time for optimal texture to form pellets. It was found that prolonged composting hour affected the pelletization process since moisture, which acts as a natural binder, reduced when the composting hour increased. The gross calorific value increased from 14.07 MJ/kg to 18.76 MJ/kg for raw mushroom waste and compost pellets at the fifth hour, respectively. This study revealed that the raw mushroom waste compost could serve as a valuable renewable energy source and that the production of energy-rich biomass compost fuel pellets without using any binder within a short composting duration is achievable with the aid of an in-vessel composter.

Original languageBritish English
Article number463
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Biomass
  • Calorific value
  • Composter
  • Energy utilization
  • Pelletization


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