Ultrasound in the deproteinization process for chitin and chitosan production

D. Vallejo-Domínguez, E. Rubio-Rosas, E. Aguila-Almanza, H. Hernández-Cocoletzi, M. E. Ramos-Cassellis, M. L. Luna-Guevara, K. Rambabu, Sivakumar Manickam, Heli Siti Halimatul Munawaroh, Pau Loke Show

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49 Scopus citations


Recently, chitin and chitosan are widely investigated for food preservation and active packaging applications. Chemical, as well as biological methods, are usually adopted for the production of these biopolymers. In this study, modification to a chemical method of chitin synthesis from shrimp shells has been proposed through the application of high-frequency ultrasound. The impact of sonication time on the deproteinization step of chitin and chitosan preparation was examined. The chemical identities of chitin and chitosan were verified using infrared spectroscopy. The influence of ultrasound on the deacetylation degree, molecular weight and particle size of the biopolymer products was analysed. The microscopic characteristics, crystallinity and the colour characteristics of the as-obtained biopolymers were investigated. Application of ultrasound for the production of biopolymers reduced the protein content as well as the particle size of chitin. Chitosan of high deacetylation degree and medium molecular weight was produced through ultrasound assistance. Finally, the as-derived chitosan was applied for beef preservation. High values of luminosity, chromatid and chrome were noted for the beef samples preserved using chitosan films, which were obtained by employing biopolymer subjected to sonication for 15, 25 and 40 min. Notably; these characteristics were maintained even after ten days of packaging. The molecular weight of these samples are 73.61 KDa, 86.82 KDa and 55.66 KDa, while the deacetylation degree are 80.60%, 92.86% and 94.03%, respectively; in the same order, the particle size of chitosan are 35.70 μm, 25.51 μm and 20.10 μm.

Original languageBritish English
Article number105417
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Active packaging
  • Chitin
  • Chitosan
  • Deacetylation
  • Deproteinization
  • Ultrasound


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