Thermomechanical Modeling of Material Flow and Weld Quality in the Friction Stir Welding of High-Density Polyethylene

Bilal Ahmad, Fahad Almaskari, Jamal Sheikh-Ahmad, Suleyman Deveci, Kamran Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A thermomechanical model of the friction stir welding (FSW) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was developed by incorporating a Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) approach. A Johnson Cook (JC) material model of HDPE was developed through experimentally generated strain-rate- and temperature-dependent stress strain data. Two sets of FSW process parameters with minimum and maximum weld defects were numerically modeled. The numerically calculated temperature distribution, material flow and flash and potential defects were validated and discussed with the experimental results. Tracer particles allowed to visualize the material movement during and after the tool had traversed from the specified region of the workpiece. Both numerical models presented similar maximum temperatures on the upper surface of the workpiece, while the model with high traverse speed and slow rotational speed had narrower shoulder- and heat-affected zones than the slow traverse, high rotational speed model. This contributed to the lack of material flow, hence the development of voids and worm holes in the high traverse speed model. Flash and weld defects were observed in models for both sets of process parameters. However, slow traverse, high rotational speeds exhibited smaller and lesser weld defects than high traverse, slow rotational speeds. The numerical results based on the CEL approach and JC material model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

Original languageBritish English
Article number3230
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian
  • friction stir welding
  • high-density polyethylene
  • material flow
  • thermomechanical modeling
  • void formation


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