The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on NH3/O2 Counterflow Diffusion Flames

Wenkai Yang, Ashraf N. Al Khateeb, Dimitrios C. Kyritsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The impact of adding H2O2 in the fuel stream on the structure of non-premixed opposed-flow NH3/O2 flames was investigated numerically using a verified computational tool and validated mechanism. The results illustrate the dual role of the added H2O2 within the fuel jet. A small amount of H2O2 within the NH3 stream acted as a fuel additive that enhanced the reaction rate via reducing the kinetic time scale. However, a novel flame structure appeared when the H2O2 mole fraction within the fuel stream increased to χH2O2 > 16%. Unlike the pure NH3/O2 flame, a premixed reaction zone was discerned on the fuel side, in which H2O2 reacts with NH3 and played the role of an oxidizer. Then, the remaining NH3 that survived premixed combustion continues reacting with O2 and forms a non-premixed flame. As a result of this structure, it was shown that the well-established conclusion of “near-equilibrium” non-premixed flame analysis in which the strain on the flame is determined by the momentum fluxes of the counter-flowing streams does not hold for the flames that were studied in this paper. It was also shown that when H2O2 acted as an oxidizer, it produced substantial amounts of HO2, which allowed for low-temperature formation of NO2 through the reaction of NO with HO2.

Original languageBritish English
Article number2216
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • ammonia
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • laminar flames
  • maritime transport


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