The Drug Administration via Fractional-order PIλDδ -Controller

Reyad El-Khazali, Iqbal M. Batiha, Shaher Momani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Amiodarone is a commonly used antiarrhythmic drug which may induce pulmonary toxicity. To achieve high quality medical treatment, it is necessary to supervise a well-controlled medical protocol to avoid anomalies in such a drug and in any similar one. Thiswork proposes the use of a fractional-order PIλDδ controllers to maintain a consistent pharmacokinetics for drug administration.The additional fractional-order parameters, 0 < λ,δ ≤ 1, which provide additional features to such controller, are determined usingthe Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. This is accomplished by approximating s or sδ by 1st - or 2nd -order rationaltransfer functions to minimize the ITAE, IAE, ISE, and ITSE error functions. The study includes a comparison between Oustaloup’sand El-Khazalis’ approximations to show the effectiveness and the cost of each controller design.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)53-62
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Fractional Differentiation and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Fractional-order pharmacokinetic model for amiodarone
  • Laplacian operator
  • Oustaloup’s and el-khazali’s approximation
  • Particle swarm optimization algorithm
  • Pid -controller


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