Tensile behaviors of Ti3C2Tx(MXene) films

Shaohong Luo, Shashikant Patole, Shoaib Anwer, Baosong Li, Thomas Delclos, Oleksiy Gogotsi, Veronika Zahorodna, Vitalii Balitskyi, Kin Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


As the most representative member of a new emerging family of 2D material, titanium carbides or nitrides (MXenes), Ti3C2Tx and its 2D assembly format, Ti3C2Tx film, have displayed outstanding performance in a broad range of practical applications. However the mechanical behaviors of Ti3C2Tx films are rarely reported. We report a systematic study of the tensile behavior of Ti3C2Tx films. Ti3C2Tx films with various thicknesses (2-17 µm) were prepared by the vacuum filtration method. Quasi-static tension and cyclic tension tests were performed to investigate the deformation and fracture mechanism of Ti3C2Tx films. It was found that: (1) the relative sliding between Ti3C2Tx flakes is the dominant deformation mechanism of Ti3C2Tx films. Cyclic loading-releasing in tension suppresses the inter-layer sliding of Ti3C2Tx flakes effectively and thus the tensile strength of thicker Ti3C2Tx film (5 µm) film improves from 57 MPa to 67 MPa. (2) The mechanical properties of Ti3C2Tx films are found to be thickness dependent. When the film thickness increases from 2.3 to 17 µm, the tensile strength and elastic modulus drop from 61 to 36 MPa and from 17 to 8 GPa, respectively. This is interpreted as more structural defects presented in the through-the-thickness direction as film thickness is increased. (3) Moderate ultrasonication pretreatment (30 min) reduces the Ti3C2Tx flake size significantly while improving the compactness of the Ti3C2Tx film; and the resulting Ti3C2Tx film shows a linear stress-strain relationship without plastic-like deformation. As a result, the tensile strength of 5 µm thick Ti3C2Tx film is enhanced to 85 MPa; (4) Structural defects of the Ti3C2Tx film have significant effects on both the brittle-like fracture behavior and the distribution of tensile strength.

Original languageBritish English
Article number395704
Issue number39
StatePublished - 25 Sep 2020


  • 2D materials
  • mechanical properties
  • MXene
  • TiCTx


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