Template-based textural modifications of polymeric graphitic carbon nitrides towards waste water treatment

Umair Azhar, Muhammad Sohail Bashir, Muhammad Babar, Muhammad Arif, Afaq Hassan, Asim Riaz, Rana Mujahid, Muhammad Sagir, Saadat Ullah Khan Suri, Pau Loke Show, Jo Shu Chang, Kuan Shiong Khoo, Muhammad Mubashir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The composite materials based on graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4) are remarkably better semiconductors, but the inherent photocatalytic performance in its generic synthesis form is not up to the mark. Eminence efforts have been made to improve its performance and photocatalytic efficiencies. Recently, extensive investigations have been performed to develop their texturally modified and highly porous structures to get around the big flaws of bulk g-C3N4. One significant disadvantage is the increase in the polycondensation while preparation at 550 °C results in g-C3N4 materials with restricted specific surface area (SSA) (<10 m2/g) and no textured pores. Textural modification has emerged as an efficient and progressive way to improve optical and electronic characteristics. The final texture and shape of CN are influenced by the precursor's interaction with the template. Researchers are interested in developing CN materials with high SSA and changeable textural properties (pore volume and pore size). Based on the literature review it is concluded that the soft templating approach is relatively simple, and straightforward to induce textural changes in the g-CN type materials. This review focused on improving the textural properties of bulk g-C3N4 via templating method, and the major advances in the modified g-C3N4 materials for the treatment of wastewater. The procedures and mechanisms of numerous approaches with varying morphologies are thoroughly explained.

Original languageBritish English
Article number134792
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • g-CN
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Soft templating methodl textural modificationl
  • Wastewater treatment


Dive into the research topics of 'Template-based textural modifications of polymeric graphitic carbon nitrides towards waste water treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this