Techniques to improve the stability of biodiesel: a review

M. A. Hazrat, M. G. Rasul, M. M.K. Khan, M. Mofijur, S. F. Ahmed, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Dai Viet N. Vo, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Biodiesel is an alternative to fossil fuels for diesel engines, yet actual biofuel properties need to be tuned to comply with fuel standards. In particular, fuel stability is required for efficiency and commercial use. Fuel stability varies with the nature and proportion of chemical functional groups of biodiesel. Optimum oxidation stability is required because degradation by oxidation gives products that compromise fuel properties and impair fuel quality and engine performance. For instance, oxidation induces the formation of short-chain corrosive acids and deposits. Here, we review techniques to improve the oxidation stability of biodiesel. For instance, stability is improved by additives such as antioxidants. Factors influencing oxidation stability include composition of fatty acids, acid content, peroxide content, iodine content, viscosity, insoluble impurities, external conditions, and storage material. Antioxidants reduce lipid peroxidation at the beginning of the chain reaction and increase the onset temperatures.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)2209-2236
Number of pages28
JournalEnvironmental Chemistry Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Additives
  • Antioxidants
  • Biodiesel
  • Fuel characteristics
  • Oxidation stability
  • Renewable energy


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