Synergistic effects of activated carbon and nano-zerovalent copper on the performance of hydroxyapatite-alginate beads for the removal of As3+ from aqueous solution

Jibran Iqbal, Noor S. Shah, Murtaza Sayed, Muhammad Imran, Nawshad Muhammad, Fares M. Howari, Sara A. Alkhoori, Javed Ali Khan, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Amit Bhatnagar, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Issam Ismail, Mohammad Abu Haija

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120 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, activated carbon (AC) and nano-zerovalent copper (nZVCu) functionalized hydroxyapatite (HA) and alginate beads were synthesized and used for the removal of As3+ from aqueous solution. The characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed successful formation of the AC/nZVCu/HA-alginate, nZVCu/HA-alginate, AC/HA-alginate, and HA-alginate beads. The scanning electron microscopy and surface analysis revealed the prepared beads to be highly mesoporous which led to the maximum adsorption of As3+, i.e., 13.97, 29.33, 30.96, and 39.06 mg/g by HA-alginate, AC/HA-alginate, nZVCu/HA-alginate, and AC/nZVCu/HA-alginate beads, respectively. The thermogravimteric analysis showed the nZVCu/HA-alginate beads to be highly stable while the AC composite beads as the least stable to heat treatment. The HA-alginate beads achieved 39% removal of As3+, however, removal efficiency was promoted to 95% by coupling AC and nZVCu with HA-alginate beads at a reaction time of 120 min. The removal of As3+ by the prepared AC & nZVCu coupled HA-alginate beads was promoted with increasing [As3+]0 and [AC/nZVCu/HA-alginate]0. The pH of aqueous solution significantly influenced the removal of As3+ by AC/nZVCu/HA-alginate beads and maximum removal was achieved at pH 5.8. Freundlich adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were found to best fit the removal of As3+ by the synthesized beads. The high performance of AC/nZVCu/HA-alginate beads in the removal of As3+ even after seven cyclic treatment as well as least leaching of Cu ions into aqueous solution suggest enhanced reusability and stability of HA-alginate beads by coupling with AC and nZVCu. The results suggest that the synthesized beads have good potential for the removal of As3+ from aqueous solutions.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)875-886
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume235
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Oct 2019

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • As
  • Hydroxyapatite-alginate beads
  • Nano-zerovalent copper
  • Water treatment

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