Surface response based modeling of liposome characteristics in a periodic disturbance mixer

Rubén R. López, Ixchel Ocampo, Luz María Sánchez, Anas Alazzam, Karl F. Bergeron, Sergio Camacho-León, Catherine Mounier, Ion Stiharu, Vahé Nerguizian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Liposomes nanoparticles (LNPs) are vesicles that encapsulate drugs, genes, and imaging labels for advanced delivery applications. Control and tuning liposome physicochemical characteristics such as size, size distribution, and zeta potential are crucial for their functionality. Liposome production using micromixers has shown better control over liposome characteristics compared with classical approaches. In this work, we used our own designed and fabricated Periodic Disturbance Micromixer (PDM). We used Design of Experiments (DoE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to statistically model the relationship between the Total Flow Rate (TFR) and Flow Rate Ratio (FRR) and the resulting liposomes physicochemical characteristics. TFR and FRR effectively control liposome size in the range from 52 nm to 200 nm. In contrast, no significant effect was observed for the TFR on the liposomes Polydispersity Index (PDI); conversely, FRR around 2.6 was found to be a threshold between highly monodisperse and low polydispersed populations. Moreover, it was shown that the zeta potential is independent of TFR and FRR. The developed model presented on the paper enables to pre-establish the experimental conditions under which LNPs would likely be produced within a specified size range. Hence, the model utility was demonstrated by showing that LNPs were produced under such conditions.

Original languageBritish English
Article number235
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Continuous-flow synthesis
  • Liposomes
  • Microfluidics
  • Micromixers
  • Nanoparticles


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