Superoxide Ion: Generation and Chemical Implications

Maan Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Inas M. Alnashef

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1426 Scopus citations


Superoxide ion (O2•-) is of great significance as a radical species implicated in diverse chemical and biological systems. However, the chemistry knowledge of O2•- is rather scarce. In addition, numerous studies on O2•- were conducted within the latter half of the 20th century. Therefore, the current advancement in technology and instrumentation will certainly provide better insights into mechanisms and products of O2•- reactions and thus will result in new findings. This review emphasizes the state-of-the-art research on O2•- so as to enable researchers to venture into future research. It comprises the main characteristics of O2•- followed by generation methods. The reaction types of O2•- are reviewed, and its potential applications including the destruction of hazardous chemicals, synthesis of organic compounds, and many other applications are highlighted. The O2•- environmental chemistry is also discussed. The detection methods of O2•- are categorized and elaborated. Special attention is given to the feasibility of using ionic liquids as media for O2•-, addressing the latest progress of generation and applications. The effect of electrodes on the O2•- electrochemical generation is reviewed. Finally, some remarks and future perspectives are concluded.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)3029-3085
Number of pages57
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - 9 Mar 2016


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