Static and dynamic adsorption of a gemini surfactant on a carbonate rock in the presence of low salinity water

Shams Kalam, Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin, Afeez Olayinka Gbadamosi, Shirish L. Patil, Muhammad Shahzad Kamal, Syed Muhammad Shakil Hussain, Dhafer A. Al-Shehri, Emad W. Al-Shalabi, Kishore K. Mohanty

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3 Scopus citations


In chemical enhanced oil recovery (cEOR) techniques, surfactants are extensively used for enhancing oil recovery by reducing interfacial tension and/or modifying wettability. However, the effectiveness and economic feasibility of the cEOR process are compromised due to the adsorption of surfactants on rock surfaces. Therefore, surfactant adsorption must be reduced to make the cEOR process efficient and economical. Herein, the synergic application of low salinity water and a cationic gemini surfactant was investigated in a carbonate rock. Firstly, the interfacial tension (IFT) of the oil-brine interface with surfactant at various temperatures was measured. Subsequently, the rock wettability was determined under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. Finally, the study examined the impact of low salinity water on the adsorption of the cationic gemini surfactant, both statically and dynamically. The results showed that the low salinity water condition does not cause a significant impact on the IFT reduction and wettability alteration as compared to the high salinity water conditions. However, the low salinity water condition reduced the surfactant’s static adsorption on the carbonate core by four folds as compared to seawater. The core flood results showed a significantly lower amount of dynamic adsorption (0.11 mg/g-rock) using low salinity water conditions. Employing such a method aids industrialists and researchers in developing a cost-effective and efficient cEOR process. © 2023, The Author(s).
Original languageAmerican English
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023


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