Simulation Analysis and Comparison of New Hybrid TLI-µTESLA and Variant TESLA Protocols Using SHA-2 and SHA-3 Hash Functions

Khouloud Eledlebi, Ahmed Adel Alzubaidi, Chan Yeob Yeun, Ernesto Damiani, Victor Mateu, Yousof Al-Hammadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The evolution of 5G and 6G networks has enhanced the ability of massive IoT devices to provide real-time monitoring and interaction with the surrounding environment. Despite recent advances, the necessary security services, such as immediate and continuous authentication, high scalability, and cybersecurity handling of IoT cannot be achieved in a single broadcast authentication protocol. This paper presents a new hybrid protocol called Hybrid Two-level µ-timed-efficient stream loss-tolerant authentication (Hybrid TLI-µTESLA) protocol, which maximizes the benefits of the previous TESLA protocol variants, including scalability support and immediate authentication of Multilevel-µTESLA protocol and continuous authentication with minimal computation overhead of enhanced Inf-TESLA protocol. The inclusion of three different keychains and checking criteria of the packets in the Hybrid TLI-µTESLA protocol enabled resistance against Masquerading, Modification, Man-in-the-Middle, Brute-force, and DoS attacks. A solution for the authentication problem in the first and last packets of the high-level and low-level keychains of the Multilevel-µTESLA protocol was also proposed. The simulation analysis was performed using Java, where we compared the Hybrid TLI-µTESLA protocol with other variants for time complexity and computation overhead at the sender and receiver sides. We also conducted a comparative analysis between two hash functions, SHA-2 and SHA-3, and assessed the feasibility of the proposed protocol in the forthcoming 6G technology. The results demonstrated the superiority of the proposed protocol over other variants in terms of immediate and continuous authentication, scalability, cybersecurity, lifetime, network performance, and compatibility with 5G and 6G IoT generations.

Original languageBritish English
Article number9063
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • continuous authentication
  • cybersecurity
  • hash function
  • immediate authentication
  • low overhead
  • scalability
  • TESLA protocol


Dive into the research topics of 'Simulation Analysis and Comparison of New Hybrid TLI-µTESLA and Variant TESLA Protocols Using SHA-2 and SHA-3 Hash Functions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this