Simple and complex modelling of timber-framed masonry walls in Pombalino buildings

L. A.S. Kouris, H. Meireles, R. Bento, A. J. Kappos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Timber-framed (TF) masonry has been developed as an effective lateral-load resisting system in regions of high seismicity such as Southern Europe. A salient feature of the 'last generation' of TF buildings is the presence of diagonal members that may consist of two diagonal braces. The present study focusses on alternative modelling procedures, ranging from simple to rather complex, for this interesting type of traditional structure. All models are applied to study the behaviour of full-scale specimens of diagonally-braced TF panels. The complex model is based on plasticity with contact surfaces for the connection between timber diagonals and masonry infills. A parametric analysis using this model shows that masonry infills affect only slightly the lateral force carried by this TF panel configuration. Furthermore, two simple modelling techniques are put forward for application in the analysis of large, realistic structures incorporating TF walls. The first one is directly connected to the complex modelling and is based on substructuring. A nine-step procedure is developed and is found to properly reproduce the response of the test specimens. The second simple model is a phenomenological one, developed on the basis of observed behaviour during tests and is a complete hysteretic model; however, for comparison purposes, all models are evaluated here with respect to the prediction of the envelope (pushover) curve for the walls tested under lateral loads.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1777-1803
Number of pages27
JournalBulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Macroscopic modelling
  • Microscopic modelling
  • Non-linear static analysis
  • Pushover curve
  • Timber-framed masonry


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