Self-healing epoxy coating synthesis by embedment of metal 2-methyl imidazole and acetylacetonate complexes with microcapsules

Hafeez Ullah, Khurram Shehzad Qureshi, Usama Khan, Maryam Zaffar, Yap Jen Yang, Nurul Ekmi Rabat, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Sidra Saqib, Ahmad Mukhtar, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Mubashir, Awais Bokhari, Wai Siong Chai, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The restoration of mechanical properties is desired for creating the self-healing coatings with no corrosion capabilities. The encapsulation of epoxy resins is limited by various factors in urea and melamine formaldehyde microcapsules. An improved method was developed, where epoxy resin was encapsulated by individual wrapping of poly(melamine-formaldehyde) and poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell around emulsified epoxy droplets via oil-in-water emulsion polymerization method. The synthesized materials were characterized analytically. The curing of the epoxy was achieved by adding the [Ni/Co(2-MI)6].2NO3 as a latent hardener and iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3] as a latent accelerator. Isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed lower curing temperature (Tonset = 116 °C) and lower activation energies (Ea ≈ 69–75 kJ/mol). The addition of microcapsules and complexes did not adversely alter the flexural strength and flexural modulus of the epoxy coatings. The adhesion strength of neat coating decreased from 6310.8 ± 31 to 4720.9 ± 60 kPa and percent healing increased from 50.83 to 67.45% in the presence of acetylacetonate complex at 10 wt% of microcapsules.

Original languageBritish English
Article number131492
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Adhesion strength
  • Epoxy resins
  • Flexural strength
  • Melamine-urea-formaldehyde
  • Metal imidazole complex
  • Self-healing


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