Scalable blockchains — A systematic review

Muhammad Hassan Nasir, Junaid Arshad, Muhammad Mubashir Khan, Mahawish Fatima, Khaled Salah, Raja Jayaraman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Blockchains are a key disruptive technology of recent times with applications across several application domains such as finance, supply chain, healthcare and Industry 4.0. With growing application types, scalability of blockchains has emerged as a key challenge in achieving the potential of this technology. This paper attempts to outline this challenge for blockchains as follows. It highlights blockchain scalability as a composite concept which can be interpreted in various ways i.e. expanding the number of participants of the network, or enhancing capabilities of the participants (such as processing, memory, storage or an efficient consensus strategy) to minimize the scalability overhead. Further, it presents a first thorough systemic study of existing efforts to achieve blockchain scalability with respect to; (i) innovative methods and mechanisms to strengthen blockchain's capabilities with respect to scalability, (ii) approaches leveraging blockchains to achieve scalable applications, and (iii) efforts analyzing blockchain solutions with respect to scalability. Through a critical analysis of existing literature, the paper identifies contributions as well as open challenges which can help research community to advance knowledge within this domain.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)136-162
Number of pages27
JournalFuture Generation Computer Systems
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Blockchain
  • Blockchain throughput
  • Scalability
  • Systematic review
  • Transaction processing speed


Dive into the research topics of 'Scalable blockchains — A systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this