Risk Identification, Assessment, and Allocation in PPP Projects: A Systematic Review

Nasir Rasheed, Wajiha Shahzad, Malik Khalfan, James Olabode Bamidele Rotimi

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    14 Scopus citations


    Public private partnerships (PPPs) have gained widespread adoption as an innovative way of procuring public infrastructure projects over the last two decades. Risk identification, assessment, and allocation have received considerable attention from researchers due to the risk heavy nature of PPP projects. Adoption of PPPs has triggered a sudden increase in research interest in the area in recent years. This study attempts to provide an updated systematic review of literature related to risks in PPPs using a PRISMA flowchart. The results of the study offer some valuable insights into the future and current state of research. The study found that the focus of research on PPPs has shifted from an overall risk identification and assessment approach to individual risk analysis. Moreover, this research trend is on the rise in developing countries, and that quantitative methods for risk management in PPP research and qualitative methods in practice are preferred. In developed economies, due to negative public sentiments, transparency concerns, and arguments of value for money not being achieved, PPPs are becoming less popular. For these reasons a shift to availability-based payment mechanisms such as in Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) from traditional revenue-based mechanisms as in Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) has been observed. These shifts in research trends and practice offer researchers future opportunities to investigate these relatively newer approaches.

    Original languageBritish English
    Article number1109
    Issue number8
    StatePublished - Aug 2022


    • infrastructure
    • public private partnership (PPP)
    • risk allocation
    • risk assessment
    • risk identification


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