Risk Assessment of Phthalates and Their Metabolites in Hospitalized Patients: A Focus on Di-and Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalates Exposure from Intravenous Plastic Bags

Yolande Saab, Emilia Oueis, Stephanie Mehanna, Zahi Nakad, Rita Stephan, Rony S. Khnayzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are plasticizers associated with multiple toxicities; however, no strict regulations have been implemented to restrict their use in medical applications in Lebanon. Our study aimed at assessing the potential risks correlated with phthalate exposure from IV bags manufactured in Lebanon. GC–MS analysis showed that di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the predominant phthalate found in almost all samples tested with values ranging from 32.8 to 39.7% w/w of plastic. DEHP concentrations in the IV solutions reached up to 148 µg/L, as measured by SPME-GC–MS/MS, thus resulting in hazard quotients greater than 1, specifically in neonates. The toxicity of DEHP is mainly attributed to its metabolites, most importantly mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). The IV bag solution with the highest content in DEHP was therefore used to extrapolate the amounts of urinary MEHP. The highest concentrations were found in neonates having the lowest body weight, which is concerning, knowing the adverse effects of MEHP in infants. Our study suggests that the use of IV bags manufactured in Lebanon could pose a significant risk in hospitalized patients, especially infants in neonatal care. Therefore, Lebanon, as well as other countries, should start imposing laws that restrict the use of phthalates in medical IV bags and substitute them with less toxic plasticizers.

Original languageBritish English
Article number357
JournalToxics
Volume10
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  • GC– MS
  • IV bags
  • mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  • phthalates
  • toxicities

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