Response Modification Factors for Concrete Bridges in Europe

Andreas J. Kappos, Themelina S. Paraskeva, Ioannis F. Moschonas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the actual response modification factors (q or R) of bridges and applies it to seven concrete bridges typical of the stock found in southern Europe. The usual procedure for analytically estimating the q-factor is through pushover curves derived for the bridge in (at least) its longitudinal and transverse directions. The shape of such curves depends on the seismic energy dissipation mechanism of the bridge; hence, bridges are assigned to two categories, those with inelastically responding piers and those whose deck is supported through bearings on strong, elastically responding piers. For bridges with yielding piers, the final value of the q-factor is found as the product of the overstrength-dependent component (qs) and the ductility-dependent component (qμ), both estimated from the pertinent pushover curve. For bridges with bearings and nonyielding piers of the wall type, an equivalent q-factor is proposed, based on spectral accelerations at failure and at design level. In this paper, pushover curves are also derived for an arbitrary angle of incidence of seismic action using a procedure recently developed by the authors, to investigate the influence of the shape of the pushover curve on the estimation of q-factors. It is found that in all cases the available force reduction factors are higher than those used for design to either Eurocode 8 or AASHTO specifications.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1328-1335
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Bridge Engineering
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2013


  • Behavior factor
  • Concrete bridges
  • Pushover curve
  • Response modification factor


Dive into the research topics of 'Response Modification Factors for Concrete Bridges in Europe'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this