Real-Time Optimal Voltage Regulation for Distribution Networks Incorporating High Penetration of PEVs

Maher Abdelkhalek Azzouz, Mostafa F. Shaaban, Ehab F. El-Saadany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a vehicle-to-grid reactive power support (V2GQ) strategy for optimal coordinated voltage regulation in distribution networks with high distributed generation (DG) penetration. The proposed algorithm employs plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), DG, and on-load tap changer (OLTC) to satisfy PEV charging demand and grid voltage requirements with relaxed tap operation, and minimum DG active power curtailment. The voltage regulation problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming and consists of three consecutive stages, in which successive stages apply the outputs of their preceding stages as constraints. The first stage aims to maximize the energy delivered to PEVs to assure PEV owner satisfactions. The second stage maximizes the DG extracted active power. Third stage minimizes the voltage deviation from its nominal value utilizing the available PEV and DG reactive powers. The main implicit objective of the third stage problem is relaxing the OLTC tap operation. In addition, the conventional OLTC control is replaced by a proposed centralized controller that utilizes the output of the third stage to set its tap position. Real-time simulations are developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal coordinated algorithm on a typical distribution network using OPAL-RT real-time simulator (RTS) in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) application.

Original languageBritish English
Article number7005526
Pages (from-to)3234-3245
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2015


  • Distributed generation
  • on-load tap changers
  • plug-in electric vehicles
  • Voltage regulation


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