Rapid biosynthesis and characterization of metallic gold nanoparticles by olea europea and their potential application in photoelectrocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

Salma S. Syed, Liyamol Jacob, G. Bharath, Mohammed Abu Haija, Anupama Kaushik, Fawzi Banat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

In recent years, photoelectrocatalysis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has received considerable attention due to their potential to improve catalytic efficiency. Herein, ultra-small Au NPs were successfully synthesized in a single pot using olea europea leaf extract as a green reducing agent for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. The TEM images showed uniform distribution and spherical shape of Au NPs with an average diameter of 5 nm. Taking advantage of the ability of Au nanoparticles to absorb visible and near-infrared light, 4-nitrophenol can be successfully reduced in the presence of NaBH4. Additionally, the electrochemical activity of the fabricated Au photocathode was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry in the dark and at VIS-NIR light irradiation. This showed an increased photocurrent density of 27 mA cm−2 with an onset potential of −0.71 V. This indicates that the Au photocathode is highly active at VIS-NIR light. Interestingly, the Au photocathode showed a higher current density of 37 mA cm−2 with an onset potential of −0.6 V in the presence of 4-nitrophenol during VIS-NIR irradiation, indicating that 4-nitrophenol was efficiently reduced by the photocathode. The Au photocathode completely reduced 4-nitrophenol in the wastewater within 35 min. Recyclability studies showed that the Au NPs photocathode exhibited higher stability over multiple cycles, confirming the ability of the electrode to treat wastewater over a longer period of time. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) process in reducing organic compounds in wastewater.

Original languageBritish English
Article number115280
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume222
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2023

Keywords

  • 4-NP reduction
  • Green synthesis
  • Olea europea leaf Extract
  • Photoelectrocatalysts
  • Wastewater treatment

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