Radiation induced degradation of dyes-An overview

M. A. Rauf, S. Salman Ashraf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

248 Scopus citations


Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as {radical dot}H, {radical dot}OH and eaq- are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that eaq- is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by {radical dot}OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)6-16
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2009


  • Advanced oxidation process
  • Degradation
  • Dosimeters
  • Dyes
  • Radiation


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