Progress on the lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis for biofuel production toward environmental sustainability

Anh Tuan Hoang, Hwai Chyuan Ong, I. M.Rizwanul Fattah, Cheng Tung Chong, Chin Kui Cheng, R. Sakthivel, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

270 Scopus citations


The increasing energy demand and diminishing fossil fuel sources have called for the exploration of new energy sources. To satisfy growing global energy demand and accomplish sustainable energy development goals, biomass plays an essential role in present and future energy. Pyrolysis holds considerable potential approaches among biomass conversion technologies. This study presents a critical review of the effect of the key pyrolysis parameters from lignocellulosic biomass to product distribution. The lignocellulosic biomass composition and pyrolysis conversion behavior of every single component was discussed in detail. On top of that, CO2-based benefits, economic assessment, and technical orientation for biofuel production from biomass are included. The carbon and hydrogen content of biomass is critical for producing high-quality bio-oil. When compared to other energy crops and agricultural residues, pyrolysis of clean wood and polar demonstrated the best bio-oil production. The increased cellulose and hemicellulose content aiding in the synthesis of bio-oil, but the high concentration of lignin results in more biochar. The article delves into product upgrading via several routes such as physical, chemical, and catalytic. From the review, considering factors such as pyrolysis technologies, energy demand, and bio-oil yields, greenhouse potential benefits needs to be evaluated, and this needs to be done on an individual basis. In terms of production cost, the current cost of biomass feedstock can range between $50 to $97/ton, which is approximately 30−54% of the liquid fuel production cost. A wide range of studies covering different aspects of biomass pyrolysis technology, from reactor configuration and the heating source to single and poly-step pyrolysis processes, have been carried out in the search for solutions in optimizing the current technologies. Thus, expanding and improving awareness of the lignocellulosic biomass in the pyrolysis technology would play an important role in producing sustainable and renewable carbon-neutral fuels.

Original languageBritish English
Article number106997
JournalFuel Processing Technology
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Alternative fuel
  • Biofuel
  • Biomass energy
  • Pyrolysis behavior
  • Thermochemical conversion


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