Preparation of modified semi-coke by microwave heating and adsorption kinetics of methylene blue

Wang Xin, Peng Jin-Hui, Duan Xin-Hui, Chandrasekar Srinivasakannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Preparation of modified semi-coke has been achieved, using phosphoric acid as the modifying agent, by microwave heating from virgin semi-coke. Process optimization using a Central Composite Design (CCD) design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique for the preparation of modifies semi-coke is presented in this paper. The optimum conditions for producing modified semi-coke were: concentration of phosphoric acid 2.04, heating time 20 minutes and temperature 587 °C, with the optimum iodine of 862 mg/g and yield of 47.48%. The textural characteristics of modified semi-coke were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The BET surface area of modified semi-coke was estimated to be 989.60 m2/g, with the pore volume of 0.74 cm3/g and a pore diameter of 3.009 nm, with micro-pore volume contributing to 62.44%. The Methylene Blue monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 98 mg/g at 332 K. The adsorption capacity of the modified semi-coke highlights its suitability for liquid phase adsorption application with a potential usage in waste water treatment.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)110-125
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013


  • Kinetics
  • Methylene
  • Microwave
  • Modified semi-coke


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