Pharmacogenetics and personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes

Sabina Semiz, Tanja Dujic, Adlija Causevic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide epidemic with considerable health and economic consequences. T2DM patients are often treated with more than one drug, including oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) and drugs used to treat diabetic complications, such as dyslipidemia and hypertension. If genetic testing could be employed to predict treatment outcome, appropriate measures could be taken to treat T2DM more efficiently. Here we provide a review of pharmacogenetic studies focused on OAD and a role of common drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) and drug-transporters (DT) variants in therapy outcomes. For example, genetic variations of several membrane transporters, including SLC22A1/2 and SLC47A1/2 genes, are implicated in the highly variable glycemic response to metformin, a first-line drug used to treat newly diagnosed T2DM. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are implicated in variation of sulphonylurea and meglitinide metabolism. Additional variants related to drug target and diabetes risk genes have been also linked to interindividual differences in the efficacy and toxicity of OAD. Thus, in addition to promoting safe and cost-effective individualized diabetes treatment, pharmacogenomics has a great potential to complement current efforts to optimize treatment of diabetes and lead towards its effective and personalized care.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)154-171
Number of pages18
JournalBiochemia Medica
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2012

Keywords

  • Oral antidiabetic drugs
  • Personalized medicine
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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