Parametric Study of the Factors Influencing Liposome Physicochemical Characteristics in a Periodic Disturbance Mixer

Rubén R. López, Ixchel Ocampo, Paula G. Font De Rubinat, Luz María Sánchez, Anas Alazzam, Thupten Tsering, Karl F. Bergeron, Sergio Camacho-Léon, Julia V. Burnier, Catherine Mounier, Ion Stiharu, Vahé Nerguizian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Liposomes encapsulate different substances ranging from drugs to genes. Control over the average size and size distribution of these nanoparticles is vital for biomedical applications since these characteristics determine to a high degree where liposomes will accumulate in the human body. Micromixers enable the continuous flow synthesis of liposomes, improving size control and reproducibility. Recently, Dean flow dynamics-based micromixers, such as the periodic disturbance mixer (PDM), have been shown to produce controlled-size liposomes in a scalable and reproducible way. However, contrary to micromixers based on molecular diffusion or chaotic advection, their production factors and their influence over liposome properties have not yet been addressed thoroughly. In this work, we present a comprehensive parametric study of the effects of flow conditions and molecular changing factors such as concentration, lipid type, and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of liposomes. Numerical models and confocal images are used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate mixing performance under different liposome production conditions and their relationship with vesicle properties. The total flow rate (TFR) and, to a lesser extent, the flow rate ratio (FRR) control the liposome size and size distribution. Effects on liposome size are also observed by changing the molecular factors. Moreover, the liposome ζ potential is independent of the factors studied here. The micromixer presented in this work enables the production of liposomes as small as 24 nm, with monodispersed to low or close to low polydispersed liposome populations as well as a production rate as high as 41 mg/h.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)8544-8556
Number of pages13
Issue number28
StatePublished - 20 Jul 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Parametric Study of the Factors Influencing Liposome Physicochemical Characteristics in a Periodic Disturbance Mixer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this