Oxidoreductases as a versatile biocatalytic tool to tackle pollutants for clean environment – a review

Muhammad Bilal, Ahmad Reza Bagheri, Débora S. Vilar, Nahal Aramesh, Katlin Ivon Barrios Eguiluz, Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira, Syed Salman Ashraf, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


With the growing population and rapid industrial development of the world, various pollutants — explicitly known as emerging pollutants (EPs) and including micro and nanoplastics, pharmaceuticals, hazardous dyes, steroid estrogen, and organic pollutants — continue to enter into the environment and water sources. These EPs cause a variety of side effects and diseases, such as cancer, neurotoxic and mutagenic effects, stomach cramps, intestinal disorders, loss of peripheral vision, deteriorated movement coordination, and weakened muscles, even in low concentrations. The presence of EPs in the environment/water sources affects humans and animals and disturbs ecological integrity. Therefore, removing these EPs from the environment with a smart, greener, and environmentally competent technology has become a meaningful goal. Most of the EPs are stable in the media, and their removal is a considerable scientific challenge. Different treatment methods, like adsorption and degradation processes, have been used to eliminate these pollutants. Enzyme-mediated approaches hold immense prospects in environmental cleanup and have been keenly explored recently. Many efforts have been made to apply biocatalytic-based materials, like laccases and peroxidases, as unique tools alongside a powerful oxidation approach for the degradation and treatment of EPs. These enzymes' unique properties in terms of excellent selectivity and exclusive catalytic features make them robust candidates for biocatalytic treatment. This work spotlights the biocatalytic properties and application of oxidoreductases to remove EPs. The challenges, conclusive remarks, and standpoints for robust biocatalysts are also given.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)420-435
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


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