Optimal Configuration of Isolated Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids

Amr A. Hamad, Mohammed Elsayed Nassar, Ehab F. El-Saadany, M. M.A. Salama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a model for planning isolated microgrids. The goal of the proposed model is to minimize the investment, operational, and total costs of an isolated microgrid through the full identification of the system configuration. The model designates the optimal type of microgrid, i.e., ac, dc, or hybrid ac/dc, and the optimal sizing of both the distributed energy resources (DERs) and the electronic power converters, if needed. To render this planning approach generic, the model accommodates a wide variety of DERs, including ac and dc generators, capacitors, and energy storage systems. The detailed operational criteria of each power apparatus are taken into account in order to provide reliable operational scenarios. As a means of guaranteeing active and reactive power adequacy in isolated microgrids, the stochastic nature of generation and demand are also considered. The proposed model was developed analytically as a mixed integer nonlinear problem so that obtaining solution optima is thus possible with the use of a deterministic branch-and-bound nonlinear solver. The validity and effectiveness of the new formulation have been demonstrated through several case studies involving varied load topologies.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8310953
Pages (from-to)2789-2798
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2019


  • Distributed energy resources (DER)
  • hybrid ac/dc microgrids
  • isolated microgrids
  • planning model


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