On the Performance of Precoded OFDM Systems in the Presence of Symbol Timing Offset

F. Kalbat, A. Al-Dweik, A. Ahmed

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This correspondence considers the performance evaluation of precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (P-OFDM) based on Walsh-Hadamard Transform (WHT) in the presence of symbol timing offset (STO). The signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) is evaluated for flat and frequency-selective fading channels (FSC), where closed-form analytical expressions are derived for the flat fading case. In FSC, the SINR is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation due to the analysis intractability. The bit error rate (BER) performance of OFDM and P-OFDM based on WHT, Haar, and Zadoff-Chu matrix transforms are considered to demonstrate the STO impact on the BER using various precoding transforms. The obtained results show that the impact of STO on P-OFDM is substantially different from conventional OFDM. In particular, it is found that STO affects the SINR of each subcarrier differently, where the SINR of certain subcarriers is severely degraded while others are immune. Furthermore, the diversity gain advantage of the precoding process may vanish for large STOs.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)10120-10125
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022


  • Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
  • precoding
  • symbol timing
  • synchronization
  • timing offset
  • Walsh-Hadamard transform


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