On the Impact of Time-Correlated Fading for Downlink NOMA

Donghong Cai, Yanqing Xu, Fang Fang, Zhiguo Ding, Pingzhi Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This paper investigates the performance of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems over time-correlated Rayleigh fading channels, where the users have heterogeneous quality of service requirements, e.g., a latency-critical user with a low target rate and a delay-tolerant user with a large target rate. In order to meet the different requirements of the users, two partial hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) schemes, including partial HARQ with chase combining (HARQ-CC) and HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR), are proposed. The closed-form expressions of outage probabilities for NOMA with and without re-transmission are derived. With the developed outage probabilities, a condition on the superiority of NOMA to orthogonal multiple access (OMA) is obtained. In particular, the condition is characterized by the transmit powers for NOMA without re-transmission and is obtained by using the bisection method in the case with re-transmission. To further improve the performance of the HARQ enabled NOMA schemes, we consider an average transmit power minimization problem by optimizing the transmit power among different transmission rounds with outage constraints. However, due to the complexity of the developed outage probabilities, the formulated problem is non-convex and challenging to solve. Then we approximate the original problem by deriving the upper-bound approximations of the outage probabilities and solve it by using the geometric programming method. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed analytical results. It is shown that the performance of NOMA is superior to OMA, only when the obtained condition is satisfied. HARQ-CC and HARQ-IR can enhance the outage performance of NOMA over time-correlated fading channels and the HARQ-IR has excellent performance in terms of energy efficiency.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8662694
Pages (from-to)4491-4504
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019


  • chase combining
  • hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ)
  • incremental redundancy
  • Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)
  • time-correlated fading channel


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