Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) detected in lakes around the world - A review

Antonios G. Katsikaros, Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

This review presents a compilation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that have been detected in waters, sediments and biota of lakes throughout the world by various researchers, over a 26-year time period (1996–2021). Numerous studies published in the literature reported that 286 pharmaceuticals and 70 personal care products (PCPs) were present in waters, 101 pharmaceuticals and 50 PCPs were present in sediments, and 63 pharmaceuticals and 19 PCPs were present in biota of lakes throughout the world. Among the pharmaceuticals present in lake waters, 194 had concentrations of over 5 ng/L, 173 were present in only one continent, whereas several (e.g. caffeine, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) were detected in lake waters of almost every continent (6/7). Among the PCPs present in lake waters, 56 had concentrations of over 5 ng/L, whereas 41 were present in only one continent. PPCPs were found in 260 lakes, located within 44 countries, the majority of them present in Asian, European and North American lakes. Lakes with high pharmaceutical concentrations were affected by either controlled or uncontrolled wastewater originated from various types of sources. Based on this study, of high concern is the Asian continent, where PPCP pollution should be strictly controlled in order to prevent possible serious health threats to humans and living organisms.

Original languageBritish English
Article number100131
JournalEnvironmental Advances
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • contaminants
  • lake biota
  • lake sediments
  • lake water
  • personal care products
  • Pharmaceuticals

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