New Insights in factors affecting ground water quality with focus on health risk assessment and remediation techniques

Vidhi Kayastha, Jimit Patel, Niraj Kathrani, Sunita Varjani, Muhammad Bilal, Pau Loke Show, Sang Hyoun Kim, Elza Bontempi, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Xuan Thanh Bui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Groundwater is considered as the primary source of water for the majority of the world's population. The preponderance of the nation's drinking water, as well as agricultural and industrial water, comes from groundwater. Groundwater level is becoming increasingly challenging to replenish due to climate change. Fertilizer application and improper processing of industrial waste are the two major anthropogenic drivers of groundwater pollution. Arsenic and cadmium are two of the principal heavy metal pollutants that have affected groundwater quality by human activity. When people are exposed to both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic contaminants for an extended period, toxic effects might occur. It can have detrimental health effects from long-term exposure to contaminants, even in low amounts. As a result, metal contamination concentrations and fractions can be used to determine potential health concerns. At the same time, contaminants also need to be removed or converted to harmless products by groundwater remediation. Remediation of groundwater quality can be accomplished in several ways, including natural and artificial means. The purpose of this review is to explore a wide range of factors that affect groundwater quality, including their possible health effects. This communication provides state-of-the-art information about remediation approaches for groundwater contamination including hindrances and perspectives in this area of research. The in-depth information provided in different sections of this communication would expand the scope of interdisciplinary research.

Original languageBritish English
Article number113171
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Degree of contamination
  • Groundwater quality
  • Health risk assessment
  • Heavy metals
  • Phytoremediation


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