Natural convection in a rectangular cavity filled with nanofluids: Effect of variable viscosity

Cornelia Revnic, Eiyad Abu-Nada, Teodor Grosan, Ioan Pop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Purpose: This paper aims to develop a numerical study of the steady natural convection in a rectangular cavity filled with the CuO–water-based nanofluid. It is assumed that the viscosity of nanofluids depends on the temperature and on the nanofluids volume fraction. Design/methodology/approach: The mathematical nanofluid model has been formulated on the basis of the model proposed by Buongiorno (2006). The system of partial differential equations is written in terms of a dimensionless stream function, vorticity, temperature and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles, and is solved numerically using the finite difference method for different values of the governing parameters. Findings: It is found that both fluid flow and heat transfer coefficient are affected by the considered parameters. Thus, the Nusselt number is slowly increasing with increasing volume fraction from 2 per cent to 5 per cent and it is more pronounced increasing with increasing Rayleigh number from 103 to 105. Originality/value: Buongiorno’s (2006) nanofluid model has been applied for the flow with the characteristics as mentioned in the paper. A comprehensive survey on the behavior of flow and heat transfer characteristics has been presented. All plots presented in the paper are new and are not reported in any other study.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)1410-1432
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow
Issue number6
StatePublished - 8 Aug 2018


  • Nanofluids
  • Natural convection
  • Numerical results
  • Variable viscosity


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