Nano-zerovalent manganese/biochar composite for the adsorptive and oxidative removal of Congo-red dye from aqueous solutions

Jibran Iqbal, Noor S. Shah, Murtaza Sayed, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Muhammad Imran, Javed Ali Khan, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Aseel Gamal Suliman Hussien, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Fares Howari

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150 Scopus citations


Congo-red (CR), a precursor of textile products and a contaminant of great concern, has contaminated aquatic environments. Here, we explored the synthesis of mesoporous nano-zerovalent manganese (nZVMn) and Phoenix dactylifera leaves biochar (PBC) composite for the removal of CR from water. The nZVMn/PBC adsorbed 117.647 mg/g of CR versus 25.316 mg/g by PBC at [CR]0 = 20 mg/L and [PBC]0 = [nZVMn/PBC]0 = 500 mg/L. Variation of [nZVMn/PBC]0, [CR]0 and pH influenced the adsorption of CR. Freundlich adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order kinetic models best fitted CR adsorption. The H2O2 coupling with nZVMn/PBC promoted removal of CR possibly due to the formation of hydroxyl radical (OH) and caused 95 % removal of CR versus 77 % by nZVMn/PBC alone. The OH scavengers inhibited the removal of CR. The nZVMn/PBC showed a good reusability and efficient removal of CR up to the seventh cycle of treatment. Results reveal that nZVMn improved performance, thermal stability and reusability of biochar. Degradation products from OH-mediated degradation of CR were studied by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector to establish degradation pathways. The ion-chromatographic analysis showed the formation of non-toxic inorganic acetate product, which suggests high potential of the newly fabricated adsorbent in the removal of CR.

Original languageBritish English
Article number123854
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - 5 Feb 2021


  • Adsorption and oxidation
  • Biowaste
  • Congo-red dye
  • Phoenix dactylifera
  • Water treatment


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