Multiagent Supervisory Control for Power Management in DC Microgrids

Amr A. Hamad, Maher Abdelkhalek Azzouz, Ehab F. El-Saadany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


This paper proposes multiagent supervisory control for precise power management in isolated dc microgrids. Two power management aspects are considered: 1) equal power sharing, which is realized via a proposed distributed equal power sharing algorithm; and 2) optimal power dispatch, which is achieved through a proposed distributed equal incremental cost (DEIC) algorithm. Both algorithms offer the additional advantage of the ability to restore the average system voltage to its nominal value. The proposed algorithms are based on the application of the average consensus theory along with voltage sensitivity analysis. Each distributed generation (DG) unit exchanges information with its neighbors, thus locally updating its no-load voltage setting to achieve the supervisory control objectives. The incorporation of DG droop-based control renders the proposed algorithms fully distributed with a reduced number of agents. The stability of the proposed algorithms is addressed, as well as the convergence of the proposed DEIC algorithm. Real-Time OPAL-RT simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in a hardware-in-The-loop application.

Original languageBritish English
Article number7169614
Pages (from-to)1057-1068
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2016


  • DC microgrids
  • distributed power management
  • real-Time simulations
  • supervisory control


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