MSGR: A Mode-Switched Grid-Based Sustainable Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Suraj Sharma, Deepak Puthal, Sabah Tazeen, Mukesh Prasad, Albert Y. Zomaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of enormous amount of sensor nodes. These sensor nodes sense the changes in physical parameters from the sensing range and forward the information to the sink nodes or the base station. Since sensor nodes are driven with limited power batteries, prolonging the network lifetime is difficult and very expensive, especially for hostile locations. Therefore, routing protocols for WSN must strategically distribute the dissipation of energy, so as to increase the overall lifetime of the system. Current research trends from areas, such as from Internet of Things and fog computing use sensors as the source of data. Therefore, energy-efficient data routing in WSN is still a challenging task for real-Time applications. Hierarchical grid-based routing is an energy-efficient method for routing of data packets. This method divides the sensing area into grids and is advantageous in wireless sensor networks to enhance network lifetime. The network is partitioned into virtual equal-sized grids. The proposed mode-switched grid-based routing protocol for WSN selects one node per grid as the grid head. The routing path to the sink is established using grid heads. Grid heads are switched between active and sleep modes alternately. Therefore, not all grid heads take part in the routing process at the same time. This saves energy in grid heads and improves the network lifetime. The proposed method builds a routing path using each active grid head which leads to the sink. For handling the mobile sink movement, the routing path changes only for some grid head nodes which are nearer to the grid, in which the mobile sink is currently positioned. Data packets generated at any source node are routed directly through the data disseminating grid head nodes on the routing path to the sink.

Original languageBritish English
Article number8022687
Pages (from-to)19864-19875
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 30 Aug 2017


  • energy efficiency
  • grid head
  • grid-based routing
  • mobile sink
  • Wireless sensor networks


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