MRI-compatible intensity-modulated force sensor for cardiac catheterization procedures

Panagiotis Polygerinos, Asghar Ataollahi, Tobias Schaeffter, Reza Razavi, Lakmal D. Seneviratne, Kaspar Althoefer

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75 Scopus citations


This paper presents a novel, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible, force sensor suitable for cardiac catheterization procedures. The miniature, fiber-optic sensor is integrated with the tip of a catheter to allow the detection of interaction forces with the cardiac walls. The optical fiber light intensity is modulated when a force acting at the catheter tip deforms an elastic element, which, in turn, varies the distance between a reflector and the optical fiber. The tip sensor has an external diameter of 9 Fr (3 mm) and can be used during cardiac catheterization procedures. The sensor is able to measure forces in the range of 0-0.85 N, with relatively small hysteresis. A nonlinear method for calibration is used and real-time MRI in vivo experiments are carried out, to prove the feasibility of this low-cost sensor, enabling the detection of catheter-tip contact forces under dynamic conditions.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)721-726
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3 PART 1
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Cardiac catheterization
  • fiber-optic force sensor
  • force sensor
  • light intensity modulation
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible


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