Modelling of closed-chain manipulators on an excavator vehicle

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The main focus of this paper is to develop a physics-based model for a closed-chain manipulator in an excavator vehicle. The derivation of closed-chain manipulator dynamic equations with a structure similar to open-chain manipulator equations is an important research problem, particularly with reference to controller design. In this paper, an approach for deriving closed-chain manipulator equations with an open-chain structure, based on trigonometric t- formulae, is presented. Holonomic loop closure constraints are employed in order to derive the closed-chain mechanism dynamics from the reduced system dynamics. The closed-chain equations, with a structure similar to serial link equations, are presented. The model incorporates the dynamic properties of the manipulator and bucket. The dynamic model for the excavation system is validated against measured data obtained from a full-scale closed-chain excavator vehicle. A dynamic model is important for the design of control strategies for trajectory tracking, a key requirement for automating the excavation task. It is noted that even though the results presented in this paper are focused on a particular excavator vehicle, the research is generic and can be adapted to any closed-chain manipulator.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)329-345
Number of pages17
JournalMathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Close-chain mechanisms
  • Dynamic modelling
  • Full-scale validation
  • Holonomic constraints


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