Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions

Shuping Xiong, Ravindra Goonetilleke, Channa Witana, Emily Lee Au

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    54 Scopus citations


    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p> 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R2 greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)1272-1289
    Number of pages18
    Issue number8
    StatePublished - Aug 2008


    • Allometry
    • Anatomy
    • Anthropometry
    • Foot
    • Footwear fit
    • Midfoot
    • Midfoot height
    • Modelling


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