Modeling of current and future energyintensity and greenhouse gas emissions ofthe Lebanese industrial sector: Assessmentof mitigation options

Nesreen Ghaddar, Toufic Mezher

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    39 Scopus citations


    Greenhouse gas emissions in Lebanon mainly come from energy activities, which are responsible for 85% of all CO2 emissions. The CO2 emissions from energy use in manufacturing industries and construction represent 24% of the total emissions of the energy sector. Lebanese manufacturers' accounted for 39.15 million gigajoules of fuel consumption for heat and power generation in 1994, including both fuel used directly and fuel burned remotely to generate electricity used in the sector. In addition to being processed by combustion, CO2 is generated in calcining of carbonates in the manufacture of cement, iron and glass. Electricity, the most expensive form of energy, represented 25.87% of all fuel used for heat and power. Residual fuel oil and diesel, which are used mainly in direct combustion processes, represent 26.85 and 26.55% of all energy use by industry, respectively. Scenarios for future energy use and CO2 emissions are developed for the industrial sector in Lebanon. The development of the baseline scenario relied on available data on major plants' outputs, and on reported amounts of fuels used by the industrial sector as a whole. Energy use in industry and the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Lebanon are projected in baseline scenarios that reflect technologies, activities and practices that are likely to evolve from the base year 1994 to year 2040. Mitigation work targets a 15% of CO2 emissions from the baseline scenario by year 2005 and a 20-30% reduction of CO2 emissions by year 2040. The mitigation options selected for analysis are screened on the basis of GHG emissions and expert judgement on the viability of their wide-scale implementation and economic benefits. Using macroeconomic assessment and energy price assumptions, the final estimates of potential GHG emissions and reduction costs of various mitigation scenarios are calculated. The results show that the use of efficient electric motors, efficient boilers and furnaces with fuel switching from fuel oil to natural gas has the largest impact on GHG emissions at a levelized annual cost that ranges from -20 to -5 US$/tonne of CO2 reduced. The negative costs are indicative of direct savings obtained in energy cost for those mitigation options.

    Original languageBritish English
    Pages (from-to)53-74
    Number of pages22
    JournalApplied Energy
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - May 1999


    • Energy use in Lebanese industry
    • Greenhouse gas emissions
    • Greenhouse gas mitigation options in Lebanese industry


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