Modeling In-Cylinder Water Injection in a 2-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

Mohamed I. Hassan, Ayoola T. Brimmo

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


In this study, we apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models in investigating the effect of injecting water into the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Using the commercial code, Star-CD, 3-D models for a port scavenging, in-cylinder fuel-injection; 2-Stroke engine is developed.The adapted engine's effective compression ratio (CR), crank Revolution per Minute (RPM) and fuel type are 8.5, 2000 rpm and Heptane (C7H16) respectively. Two types of water mixing techniques are investigated: homogenous pre-mixing with the reactants, and direct injection around the walls of the combustion chamber. The engine's pressure, temperature, and pollutant mass fraction are estimated as a function of crank angle and injected water to fuel mass ratio, for both mixing techniques. The calculated indicated work (area under P-V diagrams) is used to estimate other engine performance indicated parameters. Results showed that although the homogenous mixing of water has an effect of reducing the combustion temperature and resulting NOx emissions, the pressure exerted on the piston is greatly diminished by this technique. However, when water vapor is injected around the chamber walls, the resulting reduction in temperature and NOx emissions has a minimum effect on the engine's P-V diagram.This is as a result of a water vapor blanket formed around the combustion zone, by the injected water vapor, which cools down the cylinder's wall with a minimum influence on the combustion process. Further analysisshowed that the water injection technique could increase the power/torque per engine size and hence, increase energy efficiency.

Original languageBritish English
Pages (from-to)2331-2336
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Procedia
StatePublished - 2015
Event7th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2015 - Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Duration: 28 Mar 201531 Mar 2015


  • CFD
  • Emissions
  • Fuel Efficiency
  • Internal Combustion Enginus
  • Water Injection


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