Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

S. Thoudam, S. Buitink, A. Corstanje, J. E. Enriquez, H. Falcke, J. R. Hörandel, A. Nelles, J. P. Rachen, L. Rossetto, P. Schellart, O. Scholten, S. Ter Veen, T. N.G. Trinh, L. Van Kessel

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The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent energy measurement for the air showers measured through their radio signal with the LOFAR antennas. The energy reconstruction is performed using a parameterized relation between the measured shower size and the cosmic-ray energy obtained from air shower simulations. In order to illustrate the capabilities of LORA, the all-particle cosmic-ray energy spectrum has been reconstructed, assuming that cosmic rays are composed only of protons or iron nuclei in the energy range between ∼2 × 1016 and 2 × 1018 eV. The results are compatible with literature values and a changing mass composition in the transition region from a Galactic to an extragalactic origin of cosmic rays.

Original languageBritish English
Article number2057
Pages (from-to)34-43
Number of pages10
JournalAstroparticle Physics
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2016


  • Air showers
  • Cosmic rays
  • Energy spectrum
  • LORA


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